The Eschatology of Luke 13

17 Oct

Table Set for SederIt is interesting that Jesus mentions Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in Luke 13:28. Notice that Jesus also places all of the prophets with them, and all, that is, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob with all of the prophets of the Old Testament would sit down in the Kingdom of God. But, when would this occur? Was Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all of the prophets already in the Kingdom of God at the time when Jesus preached to the Jews in Luke 13? It would not appear so, because Daniel was a prophet, and he was told to go his way, and he would rest (i.e. lay dead) until the end of days (age). At that time, i.e. at the end of days (or the end of the age), he would arise (Daniel 12:13).

In other words, the time, when Abraham Isaac and Jacob and all of the prophets of the Old Testament would sit down in the Kingdom of God, would be none other than the time of the resurrection. According to Daniel 12:13, this would occur at the end of days, or the end of the age as the ISV and NASB put it. In fact, Daniel 12:1 speaks of a time of trouble like no other time since there had been a nation. Certainly, this points to a ominous moment, but what I don’t believe the text is pointing to a time “since there was any nation in existence,” but “since the time there was a Jewish nation in existence.” The time under consideration in Daniel 12:1 is a time of trouble never before witnessed in the history of that nation:

“There will be a time of distress such as has never occurred since the beginning of the nation until then.” (TLV)
“…and it will be a time of distress that has not been since your people have been a nation until that time.” (LEB)
“And there shall be a time of distress, such as has not been from the being of a nation until that time.” (HRB)

This context is significant, for Daniel 12:2 says that at this time of trouble the dead would be raised. Nevertheless, no one would understand this, because what Daniel had recorded was sealed up until the time of the end (Daniel 12:4). When it was asked when or at what time these wonders would be fulfilled (Daniel 12:6), it was said that it would be finished when the power of the holy people would be completely destroyed (Daniel 12:7), but what does this mean?

It seems clear to me that the unprecedented distress of the nation (Daniel 12:1) must refer to the time when Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed in 70 AD—when power (H3027) of the holy people would be shattered or broken (H5310). In other words Jerusalem and the Temple would be destroyed when the Jew’s covenant relationship with God would be broken or ended—at the passing away of the Old Covenant. Therefore, when Daniel’s “all things would be finished” (Daniel 12:7) it would be when all things were fulfilled. That is, the all things (Daniel 12:7) that would be finished also included the time when “many who sleep in the dust would awake” (Daniel 12:2). In other words, the time of the passing of the Old Covenant would herald the time of the resurrection, and this is what Luke 13:28 points to, when Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets are in the Kingdom. But, notice what Jesus warns:

“There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out.” (Luke 13:28)

At this point Jesus was speaking to Jews, while he traveled toward Jerusalem, and the final phrase of verse-28 is emphatic—“You, yourselves…” That is, Jesus told the Jews of his day, not some future Jews, that **they** would live to see the time when the resurrection would occur, and Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and all the prophets would be in the Kingdom of God, but **they** (the Jews listening to Jesus) would be cast out. The time of which Jesus spoke was the time of the Jewish war with Rome, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 AD—the time when the Old Covenant was broken by God in order to officially initiate and bring to power the terms of the New Covenant. This was Jesus’ prophesied Second Coming, and it occurred cir. 70 AD.


Posted by on October 17, 2017 in Gospel of Luke


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4 responses to “The Eschatology of Luke 13

  1. Eddie

    October 21, 2017 at 18:11

    I found Gary DeMar’s You Tube videos helpful too. He is very straightforward, which I like. He is a postmillennialist (I think), so if you can’t accept Jesus’ second coming in 70 AD, that may be the way to go (don’t know).

    I am going over all of my previous studies that deal with eschatology, changing them as needed. I’m doing this as I get time though, so you still may find several out there that will contradict what I say now. I embrace my new understanding and repudiate how I used to think.

    Lord bless you Dave, and thanks for your encouraging comments.

  2. Dave White

    October 21, 2017 at 09:27

    Thank you for taking the time to clarify this. I am with you, almost, and up to the second coming. Having been in church since the age of 4 it takes some time to correct all of the misunderstandings picked up along the way. I absolutely concur with the idea that the rapture, tribulation and related doctrines are way off as they are currently taught. In fact I just purchased Gary DeMar’s book; Wars and rumors of Wars to help me understand this more fully.
    It is sad that so much effort is placed on ‘end times prophesy’ as it really takes our eyes off of the real prize; and it gives us excuses for behaviors that are neither beneficial to us or the church as a whole. Further, it puts to rest the concept of soul sleep in my opinion.

    I also wanted to thank you for the revisions you made to your explanation of the 1290 days from Daniel. …very helpful!
    God Bless

  3. Eddie

    October 20, 2017 at 11:43

    Hi Dave, and glad to see you made it back home safely. Thank you for your kind remarks about my recent study. I have recently (past 2-3 months) changed my point of view about Jesus’ “Second Coming”. I believe it occurred in 70 AD. All judgment had been given to him, and the Father judges no one (John 5:22). So, 70 AD was Jesus’ doing as was prophesied in Daniel 9:26, by the way.

    Most Christian scholars believe the Apocalypse was written late in the first century AD, but this is in contradiction to what Clement of Alexandria says:

    “For the teaching of our Lord at His advent, beginning with Augustus and Tiberius, was completed in the middle of the times of Tiberius. And that of the apostles, embracing the ministry of Paul, ends with Nero.” [See: Clement of Alexandria; Stromata; book 7, chapter 17].

    In other words the entire New Testament was written prior to 70 AD. There is even a 3rd century (?) document stating that Paul wrote to 7 churches in parallel to John’s 7 churches in the Apocalypse, so the book of Revelation comes before at least some of Paul’s letters, perhaps even before all of his letters. I will be discussing this point of view in future studies.

    I intend to begin sometime in November to post in earnest about my new point of view concerning my eschatology. I have embraced full preterism or what some call Covenant Eschatology. The belief claims that all prophecy was fulfilled by 70 AD, and we are now living in the Gospel Age which never ends. When we die we pass on to be with the Lord.

    Lord bless you, Dave, and I’ll be happy to reply to any further questions you may have.

  4. Dave White

    October 20, 2017 at 08:44

    Very well explained and I concur. The only issue I have with this discourse is the second coming being 70AD. While I see the other issues, since Jerusalem was destroyed at the hand of Rome, and while I can see God’s hand in that, in what way was Jesus involved?
    To help clarify, although this may seem like an ignorant question, what is considered the latest date in which any part of the N.T. was written?
    Thanks and God Bless

    On another note, we are back in beautiful Arizona and happy to be back. We had rain all the way across our drive to Ohio. It was neither business or pleasure but to check on my mother-in-law!

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